Saturday, December 29, 2012

What is the Emergence and Development of International Organisation?

The emergent process of International Organisation did not happen in a day or overnight, but it took long time to come into present-day’s shape. The initial shape of present-day’s International Organisation began in the form of treaty. It may be dealt with as under:
1. Ancient Treaties: The First Step:
Third party requires for amicable disposition of any dispute in the form of negotiations, mediations, conciliations, and finally treaties. Gerald J. Mangone: The treaties of the past were the first steps towards the emergence and development of International Organisation.
2. Theories of Inter-State Relations by the Ancient Greek:
The ancient Greeks have founded the rudiments of International Organisation by establishing inter-city-state relationship activities. The Amphietyonic League was the first formal organisation in 6th century B. C. for regulating relations between city-states. A confederation, Delos, was created between maritime states of the Aegean islands who contributed ships and men to maintain a common navy. Seventy Greek states formed the Achaean League of the Hellenes. These were the prototype of the regional inter-governmental organisation of today.
3. The Christian Powers Alliance:
With the decline of the Roman Empire, the Christian Church became prominent. In 1305, a French lawyer, Pierre Dubois, proposed an alliance of Christian powers. The Church, through the papacy provided a kind of universalism to counter the decentralising tendencies of feudalism and other forms of political fragmentation. Constance, called “the most spectacular international congress of history”, assembled in 1414 to consider claims to the papacy and to try and shape the political as well as the spiritual future of Europe. Though never successful to temporal power, the Roman Church remains a powerful inter-governmental organisation.
4. Swiss-Confederation:
In 1315, a treaty among the Swiss cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden gave rise to a confederation, which was later joined by five other cantons; this was the nucleus of the modern Switzerland
5. Peace Plans for International Relations:
In 17th and 18th centuries, the best-known plans to peaceful international relations were put forward. Among these were the ‘The Great Design’ for peace formulated by the Duc de Sully at the time of Henry IV of France. For stability in Europe political entities of 15 states were created. Each would be equal in status, territory and material powers. Some would be ruled by hereditary monarchs, Others would have elective monarchs, and 4 would be republics. These states would form a federation. A federal state or council would determine quotas of forces. The federal states of Europe would be governed by a general council or senate consisting of 66 delegates. The senate would deliberate on any affairs that might occur: pacify the quarrels, determine all civil, political and religious affairs of Europe, whether within itself or with its neighbours. There would be 6 regional councils, and appeals from their decisions could be made to the supreme council, the senate.
6. Parliament of Europe Plan:
This body would establish laws and settle disputes between the princes. The parliament would make decisions on territorial adjustments.
7. Project to Bring Perpetual Peace in Europe:
In 1712 “Project to Bring Perpetual Peace in Europe” was proposed by the Abbe de Saint-Pierre. A union of the 24 Christian states of Europe for the Project. A senate sitting permanently in Utrecht would be composed of two representatives from each member state with a rotating presidency. Expenses of the union would be met by contributions determined monthly based upon the revenues of the states and the needs of the organisation. Some decisions would be taken by a three-fourths vote, others by a majority.
The objective of the union was to give security to the sovereigns for their personal reigns and for the preservation of their independence and territory. The senate would also serve as a tribunal to assure the execution of treaties and to settle disputes. Resort to war, conclusion of treaties inconsistent with the union, or failure to abide by decisions of the senate would bring enforcement action by the members. On the eve of French Revolution, in 1793, Jeremy Bentham published his “Principles of International Law”. One section of which was entitled “A Plea for a Universal and Perpetual Peace.” Bentham developed the idea that peace was indivisible and the world could not remain half slave and half free with any hope for the achievement of peace. Theme of Jeremy Bentham was further developed by Immanuel Kant in “Perpetual Peace” in 1795. Kant laid down principles for the conduct of interstate relations, which he expected would reduce the possibilities of war. He laid down conditions for perpetual peace. First, he called for the establishment of representative government in all the states. Secondly, there should be a federation of free states, but not a super state. This federation would seek to end war forever. Finally, there would be free intercourse among peoples of the world, including travel and communications.
However, the ideas of these political theorists which are considered to be the ground-work for the ongoing evolution of the formal inception of today’s international organisation, may be summed up as follows:
conclusion of a formal compact among the states; establishment of a council on which the member states would be represented; voting by majority without the requirement of unanimity; requiring that the states should settle their differences peaceably, and submit to arbitration, sometimes by the council; economic and military sanctions for resorting war; in some plans, a system by which forces would be made available to the council with an equitable distribution of costs; some consideration given to the need for action in the economic and cultural spheres; in Kant’s proposals, the implied need for compatible ideologies; proposals for making contributions to the organisations; and the idea of European, rather than world organisation, due to the fact that the projects were stimulated largely by European’s wars.
8. European Renaissance:
The European Renaissance brought a rapid change in W. Europe. In 15th, 16th and 17th centuries - international relations gained a new meaning and importance. Machiavelli gave a new realism to the study of inter-state relations. Bodin in the 16th century formulated the legal concept of sovereignty. Grotius contributed to the evolution of a ‘law of nations’. As the system expanded and political and economic relationships multiplied, diplomatic representation became more widespread. Diplomatic contacts, however, were not sufficient to cope with the increasing complexities of the international system. Thus evolved a form of extended diplomacy - international conferences or gatherings that dealt with problems concerning more than two or three states. These conferences often resulted in an international treaty or formal peace settlement. The first significant event in this context was the Congress of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the ‘30 Years’ War. The Peace of Utrecht in 1713 was another step towards the establishment of International Organisation, which accorded sanction to new dynasties, and imperial aspirations received a setback within Europe. It was in the 19th century the conditions necessary for the development of International Organisation. industrial revolution led to an enormous increase in production which, in turn, led to growth in trade and penetration of European powers in different parts of the world. A complex worldwide economic network was created which required some kind of regulations and arbitration so as to avoid or settle conflicts between states. Common rules were be required to settle issues of patenting inventions, classify goods for customs duties, and fix exchange rates for currencies.
9. European Concert:
The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) introduced the European Concert System. The system regulated international affairs by means of regular international conferences. It lasted for a century and shaped the course of European and, to some extent, world affairs. To quote Cheever and Haviland, “This development was a landmark in the history of International Organisation for several reasons: First, the alliance, though forged in war, was continued after hostilities to enforce the peace. Second, periodic conferences were instituted when the great powers agreed to renew their meetings at fixed intervals. Third, despite the suspicions of the smaller powers it was generally agreed that the maintenance of peace depended on this sort of big-power collaboration. The experience of the Vienna Congress led to the informal pattern of consultations conferences and occasional concerted action known as the Concert of Europe. In 1815 at Paris, Tsar Alexander concluded a Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria with the idea of ruling their subjects and conducting international relations according to the principles of Christian morality. Several other conferences took place right down to 1914. The Paris Conference of 1856 and the Berlin Consultations of 1871 dealt with the problems of the Balkans. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 dealt with the issue of Turkey while the meets in 1884-85 imposed some order on the developing scramble to dominate Africa. The Concert of Europe was not able to cope with the nationalistic rivalries and divisive tendencies, which led to the First World War.
10. Hague Peace Conferences:
Another significant development was at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 are related to the development of international law, but they marked a milestone in the development of International Organisation as well as 44 states attended the second Hague Conference. The First Hague Conference established a Permanent Court of Arbitration, which offered the services of a panel of members. The Hague Conferences were a prelude to the building of League of Nations, an interim stage in the development of international cooperation. Transition from ad hoc to standing international conferences was another milestone in the development of International Organisation. “Whereas both the Concert and the Hague reflected the significance of the quest for security and the importance of high political issues, this third phenomenon was the manifestation of the increasing complexity of the economic, social, technical and cultural interconnections of the people of the modern world,” as Goodspeed says. Both the Concert and the Hague did a lot for the emergence of International Organisation. These institutions arose in response to the growing need for cooperation in socio-economic problems, but could not be handled, satisfactorily by states alone. Before emerging the concept, the rudimentary practices were confined to conferences, congresses, negotiations etc. with the conclusion of wars only. More importantly, decisions were taken occasionally, but not regularly and institutionally. Functions were only on ad hoc basis. Disadvantages were: Firstly, each conference had to be convened with the end of the wars and someone had to take initiative to convene the conference. It took much time reaching any solution. Second, the conferences were not debating forums. Third, the conferences were held by invitation of the host state; no principle of membership. Finally, the conference had no opportunity for determining legal questions. Apart from all these, process of emerging International Organisation. could not remain halting; in the 19th century development of associations or unions began building.
11. Private International Associations:
The Private Int. Associations began flourishing with further establishment. The World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840 was the first private conference, which established some permanent machinery of association. In between 1840 and the beginning of the First World War, about 400 permanent associations came into existence. The World Alliance of YMCA’s founded in 1855, has been considered to be the first modern private international organisation. Here are some of the examples of those associations: The Inter-Parliamentary Union (1889); The International Law Association (1873); The International Dental Federation (1900); The International Literary and Artistic Association (1878); The International Chamber of Commerce (1919). The growth of these private unions increased so much that the Union of International Associations was formed in 1910 to co-ordinate and regulate their activities. The associations, coming into existence, had to abide by the following conditions. These are: The possession of permanent organ, That the object must be of interest to all or some nations and not one of profit, and that membership should be open to individuals or groups from different countries. The International Committee of the Red Cross promoted the Geneva Conventions of 1864, 1906, 1929 and 1949, the International Maritime Committee promoted the Conventions on the Safety of Life at Sea of 1914 and 1929 are good examples of the activities of these private unions.
12. Public International Union:
In other cases the success of the private unions led directly to the establishment of public union in the same field; private activity led and state activity followed. The Int. Congress of Weights, Measures and Moneys, 1867 became the Metric Union, the International Association of the Legal Protection of labour became ILO, and the Artistic Association became the International Bureau of Literary and Artistic Property. A somewhat similar agency called the European Commission was established by the Treaty of Paris in 1856 for the Danube River. In 1903 the International Office of Public Health was established in Paris, but later on, it became the World Health Organisation. the International Copyright Union (1886), the International Sugar Union (1902), The Sugar Union had a permanent commission, which, by majority vote, could order a change in municipal legislation. The Institute of Agriculture provided for a quorum of 2/3rds for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions. Examples were not exhaustive but indicates the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions. In the first case, the trend towards permanence of association is notable whether in the form of permanent deliberative or legislative organs working with administrative organs, such as, the Telegraphic Union, Metric Union, and UPU etc. are the examples of some of those organizations or the organisations with periodic conferences working in conjunction with a permanent bureau, such as, Industrial Property, Railway Freight Transportation may also be classified as the examples of those organisations. private organisations demonstrated a wide-ranging community of interest on specific topics, and an awareness that cooperation had to be effective. Such unions created the machinery for regular meetings and many established permanent secretaries. The work done by these organisations remains as of considerable value in influencing governmental activities and stimulating world action. These pioneering international organisations restricted themselves to specific areas, but they introduced new ideas, which paved the way for the universal organisations of the 20th century. Such concepts as permanent secretaries, periodic conferences, majority voting, weighted voting and proportionate financial contributions were important in easing administrative cooperation, and they laid the basis for contemporary international institutions. The most significant innovation in the 20th century in international relations was, perhaps, the creation of the League of Nations. It was the first concrete attempt taken, soon after the First World War, towards a permanent general international organisation of universal character. The League of Nations worked effectively for nearly more than two decades. But failed with the beginning of the Second World War and was ultimately dissolved in 1946. During the continuance of the Second World War, the United Nations was established. The United Nations was, virtually, established in 1945 to ensure world peace and lay down the economic, social, and political foundation. The formation of the United Nations formally ended the European States supremacy and introduced universalism through the establishment of the United Nations.

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