Saturday, December 29, 2012

What are the Objectives of International Organisation?

International Organisations are defined by reference to their legal functions and responsibilities, with limited field of activity. Each constitution sets out aims and objects and is accordingly provided to achieve those objects. There are disputes among the states of the world causing threats. International Organisations are aimed to reduce the possibility of those threats and aggression. The League of Nations was established to maintain international peace and security but the League could not survive for long. The responsibility undertaken by the League did not die with its demise; the United Nations took over responsibility. The process of keeping peace and security is material might be disruption but the ongoing mechanism of the introduction of I/Os shall keep it alive with the creation of another organisation. International Organisations are created to further political and national security on the one hand and economic and social welfare on the other. The development of political and national security involves the organisation in the prevention of armed conflict activity directed toward economic and social welfare is undertaken whether problems in these areas are related to the peace or not International Organisations, as a whole, have two main objects:
(i) Furtherance of political and national security of the world; and
(ii) The advancement of economic and social welfare of the world.

What is Ethics and Professional Ethics?

 Ethics is the part of philosophy that talks about good and evil. Ethics tries to answer questions like:
  • What actions are good? What actions are evil?
  • How can we tell the difference?
  • Are good and evil the same for everyone?
  • How should we make hard decisions that might help or hurt other people?
  • How our actions effect others?
Some philosophers call ethics the "science of morality". Morality is what someone thinks or feels is good or bad. There are many different moralities, but they share some things. For example most people think that murder (killing somebody) is wrong. Some philosophers hope to find more things that moralities share. They think that ethics should use the scientific method to study things that people think are good or bad. Their work can be used to test the fairness of a situation, such as how people should treat each other. An example of this kind of thinking is the categorical imperative. Many countries have laws based on this idea of fairness.
Other philosophers think that ethics is separate from morality. They do not think that ethics can be studied using the scientific method and they think it is closer to metaphysics. Some of them think like Platonists about what is good and bad.
Another group of philosophers believe that ethics is subjective. This means that they think that what is right for me is whatever I say is right. This means that ethics is just a person's own morality. These philosophers do not think that ethics is the same for all people.

Professional ethics: 
Professional ethics are standards or codes of conduct set by people in a specific profession. A code of ethics is a part of the expectations of those involved in many different types of professions. People in a profession don't want to condone bad, dishonest or responsible behavior if it does occur by someone in their field. By setting out expected behaviors in the form of professional ethics, professionals work together to try to uphold a good reputation. Professional ethics are commonly known as ethical business practices. Respect and honesty are the two main components of professional ethics. All employees are expected to represent a business ethically as they are a part of it. This is why businesspeople traditionally speak of "we" or "us" rather than the more personal "I" for the most part. For instance, if an employee must mention company policy to a customer, he or she may say "I'm sorry, but this is our company policy in these situations." Policies are another type of preferred standards in how business is done, and everyone in a company is expected to represent them.
It should be noted that people within each profession are expected to be respectful and honest in their personal dealings as well. For instance, it would be unethical for law enforcement professionals to also be criminals in their time off the job. Professionals are also expected to uphold professional ethics by not getting involved in any type of conflict of interest. A conflict of interest situation may occur when an individual tries to accomplish personal goals as a result of being in a certain profession. For example, a politician who uses government resources to get work done on his personal home could be seen as being involved in a conflict of interest.
Professional ethics training is often included in career education programs. For instance, medical assistants are trained on the many ethics issues regarding patient confidentiality. It is both unethical and unlawful to discuss a patient's health records with others who are not involved in the medical care of the individual.
Engineering, journalism, religious organizations and many other professions have professional ethics. These ethical codes or rules must never go against laws, but rather often coordinate with them as in the case of medical record confidentiality. In general, professional ethics always include upholding honesty and respect in the profession over personal needs, conflicts or biases. A bias is a personal belief such as prejudice toward a certain group of people.
"Legal ethics" in the United States is generally understood to primarily apply to lawyers, while codes of professional responsibility also apply in a derivative sense (indirectly) to non-lawyers who work with lawyers, such as paralegals or private investigators. In the United States, the practice of law is regulated by the governments of the individual states and territories. As a whole, federal law does not control legal ethics.
Each state or territory has a code of professional conduct dictating rules of ethics. These may be adopted by the respective state legislatures and/or judicial systems. The American Bar Association has promulgated the Model Rules of Professional Conduct which, while formally only a recommendation by a private body, have been influential in many jurisdictions. The Model Rules address many topics which are found in state ethics rules, including the client-lawyer relationship, duties of a lawyer as advocate in adversary proceedings, dealings with persons other than clients, law firms and associations, public service, advertising, and maintaining the integrity of the profession. Respect of client confidences, candor toward the tribunal, truthfulness in statements to others, and professional independence are some of the defining features of legal ethics.
Law schools in the United States are required to offer a course in professional responsibility, which encompasses both legal ethics and general matters of professionalism that do not present ethical concerns.

What is Consequentialism?

This array of alternatives raises the question of which moral theories count as consequentialist (as opposed to deontological), and why. In actual usage, the term ’consequentialism‘ seems to be used as a family resemblance term to refer to any descendant of classic utilitarianism that remains close enough to its ancestor in the important respects. Of course, different philosophers see different respects as the important ones. Hence, there is no agreement on which theories count as consequentialist under this definition.
To resolve this vagueness, we need to determine which of the various claims of classic utilitarianism are essential to consequentialism. One claim seems clearly necessary. Any consequentialist theory must accept the claim that I labeled ‘consequentialism’, namely, that certain normative properties depend only on consequences. If that claim is dropped, the theory ceases to be consequentialist.
It is less clear whether that claim by itself is sufficient to make a theory consequentialist. Several philosophers assert that a moral theory should not be classified as consequentialist unless it is agent-neutral (McNaughton and Rawling 1991, Howard-Snyder 1994, Pettit 1997). This narrower definition is motivated by the fact that many self-styled critics of consequentialism argue against agent-neutrality.
Other philosophers prefer a broader definition that does not require a moral theory to be agent-neutral in order to be consequentialist (Bennett 1989; Broome 1991, 5-6; and Skorupski 1995). Criticisms of agent-neutrality can then be understood as directed against one part of classic utilitarianism that need not be adopted by every moral theory that is consequentialist. Moreover, they argue, the narrower definition conflates independent claims and obscures a crucial commonality between agent-neutral consequentialism and other moral theories that focus exclusively on consequences, such as moral egoism and recent self-styled consequentialists who allow agent-relativity into their theories of value (Sen 1982, Broome 1991, Portmore 2001, 2003).
A definition solely in terms of consequences might seem too broad, because it includes absurd theories such as the theory that an act is morally right if it increases the number of goats in Texas. Of course, such theories are implausible. Still, it is not implausible to call them consequentialist, since they do look only at consequences. The implausibility of one version of consequentialism does not make consequentialism implausible in general, since other versions of consequentialism still might be plausible.
Besides, anyone who wants to pick out a smaller set of moral theories that excludes this absurd theory may talk about evaluative consequentialism, which is the claim that moral rightness depends only on the value of the consequences. Then those who want to talk about the even smaller group of moral theories that accepts both evaluative consequentialism and agent-neutrality may describe them as agent-neutral evaluative consequentialism. If anyone still insists on calling these smaller groups of theories by the simple name, ‘consequentialism’, this narrower usage will not affect any substantive issue.
What matters is only that we get clear about exactly which claims are at stake when someone supports or criticizes what they call “consequentialism”. Then we can ask whether each objection really refutes that particular claim.

What is the Emergence and Development of International Organisation?

The emergent process of International Organisation did not happen in a day or overnight, but it took long time to come into present-day’s shape. The initial shape of present-day’s International Organisation began in the form of treaty. It may be dealt with as under:
1. Ancient Treaties: The First Step:
Third party requires for amicable disposition of any dispute in the form of negotiations, mediations, conciliations, and finally treaties. Gerald J. Mangone: The treaties of the past were the first steps towards the emergence and development of International Organisation.
2. Theories of Inter-State Relations by the Ancient Greek:
The ancient Greeks have founded the rudiments of International Organisation by establishing inter-city-state relationship activities. The Amphietyonic League was the first formal organisation in 6th century B. C. for regulating relations between city-states. A confederation, Delos, was created between maritime states of the Aegean islands who contributed ships and men to maintain a common navy. Seventy Greek states formed the Achaean League of the Hellenes. These were the prototype of the regional inter-governmental organisation of today.
3. The Christian Powers Alliance:
With the decline of the Roman Empire, the Christian Church became prominent. In 1305, a French lawyer, Pierre Dubois, proposed an alliance of Christian powers. The Church, through the papacy provided a kind of universalism to counter the decentralising tendencies of feudalism and other forms of political fragmentation. Constance, called “the most spectacular international congress of history”, assembled in 1414 to consider claims to the papacy and to try and shape the political as well as the spiritual future of Europe. Though never successful to temporal power, the Roman Church remains a powerful inter-governmental organisation.
4. Swiss-Confederation:
In 1315, a treaty among the Swiss cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden gave rise to a confederation, which was later joined by five other cantons; this was the nucleus of the modern Switzerland
5. Peace Plans for International Relations:
In 17th and 18th centuries, the best-known plans to peaceful international relations were put forward. Among these were the ‘The Great Design’ for peace formulated by the Duc de Sully at the time of Henry IV of France. For stability in Europe political entities of 15 states were created. Each would be equal in status, territory and material powers. Some would be ruled by hereditary monarchs, Others would have elective monarchs, and 4 would be republics. These states would form a federation. A federal state or council would determine quotas of forces. The federal states of Europe would be governed by a general council or senate consisting of 66 delegates. The senate would deliberate on any affairs that might occur: pacify the quarrels, determine all civil, political and religious affairs of Europe, whether within itself or with its neighbours. There would be 6 regional councils, and appeals from their decisions could be made to the supreme council, the senate.
6. Parliament of Europe Plan:
This body would establish laws and settle disputes between the princes. The parliament would make decisions on territorial adjustments.
7. Project to Bring Perpetual Peace in Europe:
In 1712 “Project to Bring Perpetual Peace in Europe” was proposed by the Abbe de Saint-Pierre. A union of the 24 Christian states of Europe for the Project. A senate sitting permanently in Utrecht would be composed of two representatives from each member state with a rotating presidency. Expenses of the union would be met by contributions determined monthly based upon the revenues of the states and the needs of the organisation. Some decisions would be taken by a three-fourths vote, others by a majority.
The objective of the union was to give security to the sovereigns for their personal reigns and for the preservation of their independence and territory. The senate would also serve as a tribunal to assure the execution of treaties and to settle disputes. Resort to war, conclusion of treaties inconsistent with the union, or failure to abide by decisions of the senate would bring enforcement action by the members. On the eve of French Revolution, in 1793, Jeremy Bentham published his “Principles of International Law”. One section of which was entitled “A Plea for a Universal and Perpetual Peace.” Bentham developed the idea that peace was indivisible and the world could not remain half slave and half free with any hope for the achievement of peace. Theme of Jeremy Bentham was further developed by Immanuel Kant in “Perpetual Peace” in 1795. Kant laid down principles for the conduct of interstate relations, which he expected would reduce the possibilities of war. He laid down conditions for perpetual peace. First, he called for the establishment of representative government in all the states. Secondly, there should be a federation of free states, but not a super state. This federation would seek to end war forever. Finally, there would be free intercourse among peoples of the world, including travel and communications.

What is Role of International Organisations?

(1) Development of international law through the relationship of international organisation and states:
The International Organisations are based on their constitutions and follow the general principles of international law, enrich the development of international law; but apart from the law and practice of such bodies, there is another direction in which they may influence the development of international law. As years progressed, international law begins absorbing dimension of its scope, which was traditionally confined only to states. In addition to states, this has been done with the inclusion of international organisation as the subject of international law. The relationship between international organisations themselves and states has opened the door of further development of international law.
This was done with the conclusion of the Vienna Convention of 1986 on the law of treaties between states and international organisations or between international organisations themselves. As to relations between states and international organisations, in 1948, there arose the question whether in respect of injuries suffered by its agents in Palestine; the United Nations could claim compensation. International Court of Justice (ICJ) decided in 1949 that the UN an international organisation was entitled to bring such a claim.
(2) Through the relationship between the organisations themselves:
The practice of International Organisations in concluding agreements with each other enriches rules of law and procedure concerning international transactions.
(3) Through the relationship between the organisation and individuals:
The relationship between international organisations and individuals, like that of between states and individuals, has also developed the growth of important new principles of international law. The Palestine issue has provided by reconciling the dual position of agents of the United Nations, as servants on the one hand of the organisation, and as nationals on the other hand.
(4) Improving human welfare the common purpose:
The true nature and purpose of present-day I/Os is that certain of these bodies represent one kind of instrumentality whereby states are associated with in a common purpose of improving human welfare.
(5)Through passing Conventions
Although there is no world legislature, but various kinds of legislative measures may be adopted by international organisations some of the important examples are:
         Conventions on Sea Law, 1958;
         Conventions on Diplomatic Relations, 1961;
         Vienna Conventions on Contract Law, 1969.
In fact, all the plenary organs of the international organisations of the world are empowered to play such kind of role. Six of the specialised agencies are largely regulative organisations, namely, the ILO, the WHO, the WMO, the ICAO, the ITO, and the IMO. Following special legislative or quasi-legislative techniques of these bodies are:
a. The adoption of regional Regulations or operating ‘Procedure’, for example, by regional meetings of the ICAO.
b. The participation of the non-governmental representatives in the legislative processes, for example, workers’ and employers’ delegates in the ILO Conference, and private operating agencies at Administrative Conferences of the International Communication Union.
c. The approval of codes or charters of guidelines for domestic implementation by the governments of member states; e.g. the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes approved in 1981 by WHO.
(6) Playing role in the creation of customary international laws:
The international organisations play vital role in creating customary international laws. Proposals, declarations or decisions taken unanimously by many of the International Organisations are considered to be abided by those organisations, and these play significant part in the creation of rules and regulations of international laws. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1848, Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 1960, are mentioned in this respect.
(6) Through internal administrative rules:
In practice, the International Organisations are entitled to frame some specific conventions, rules and regulations for the internal administration and smooth running of the organisations. These internal administrative rules and regulations create significant impact in the development of international law.

International Constitution vs. National Constitution

In modern int. law, not only state but International Organisation also is included as one of the subjects of international law.
Government works as the representative of its citizens whereas an int. org. composed of sovereign, states voluntarily join for common pursuit of certain goals. In national state, various branches of government, together with their powers, are laid down in a constitution; provisions are binding upon the individual citizens. An international organisation, on the other hand, rests upon its concerned constitutions, which are much less, secure. The functions of modern states and the rights, duties, and powers of their instrumentalities are governed by their respective constitutional laws. Similarly, I/Os are regulated by a body of rules embodied in their respective documents that may well be described as international constitution law. The customary separation of powers on a national level into executive, legislative, and judicial branches is roughly approximated in an international organisation. The constitutional structure of the International Organisations does not follow precisely the same pattern as in the constitutions of modern states but there are significant analogies between them. Constitutionally, functions of states are split up into three-folds - executive, legislative and judiciary. Let us see how far these three branches of both the constitutions are resembled or differed.

It is true that there is no central executive organ with the same degree of authority over the international community as any government exercises over a modern state. In fact, there is no executive organ in international organisation, athough certain organs are assigned special duties and are permitted to act in specific situations. In administration, the permanent secretariat of an I/O has an extremely important function. The Secretary-General is the executive head of the secretariat and can speak for the organisation.

International Organisations does not possess legislative body in the ordinary sense. Ordinarily, the organisation meets in regular annual session with an equal representation from all members. The annual conference is essentially a policy-making body, performing in addition to various financial and supervisory duties. It carries out certain constituent functions.

The differences between the judicial functions of national and international tribunals are even more apparent. The ICJ functions as the judicial organ of the UN, but substantially, it differs with the national courts in many ways. The Court can neither exercise its jurisdictions, nor execute its decisions likewise the national courts. Above all, filing of suits in the international court does not happen precisely like filing cases before the national courts. There are complicated procedures.

International Organisations and State Sovereignty

Legally speaking, the international organisations are the outcomes of treaties having voluntary nature of participation of sovereign countries but no state is bound to give up its sovereignty in the cause of institutionalising a world society. International Organisations at present represent a ‘sophisticated’ means of conducting inter-state relations when national interests are better served through multilateral action or international concert of the essential elements of a state, sovereignty is the most valuable, without which the statehood character of a state becomes impotent but somewhat differently, sovereignty may customarily be characterised by absoluteness, universality, permanence, and indivisibility. An international organisation is the association of sovereign states and decision taken by the organisation is applicable to all the members. So, question may arise whether the membership of any organisation affects the sovereignty of the respective states. It has been argued that state sovereignty has been restricted by the growth of international law and agreements legally contracted with other states. In fact, sovereignty deals with the internal relations of a state to its inhabitants and is, therefore, a term of constitutional law and not applicable to international relations. Such reasoning is attacked by the proponents of the strict juristic theory of sovereignty. Limitations imposed by international law and treaties and conventions are not legally binding. Because they are voluntary limitations, self-imposed, unenforceable by any higher authority, and can be denounced by the sovereign state at its will.  Thus it is argued that such restrictions cannot be enforced by the state upon its citizens since it is not the product of the sovereign power in the same sense as national law. The fact is that despite the need for good faith in interstate relations and the development of complex interrelations among states, each state, in the final analysis, seeks to be its own interpreter of international obligations and maintains the right to determine its own standards of international conduct. In its most extreme form, such reliance is the very negation of international cooperation and destroys the fundamental obligations of membership in an international organisation. Happily, most states recognise the need for a standard of international conduct based upon respect for the tenets of international law and the requirements of comity and good faith. Practically, if a vital national interest is seriously threatened, the state must pursue a unilateral course of action, supported by the popular belief of its citizens that as a sovereign entity, it cannot be legally restricted in its external as well as internal acts.

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Objectives and reasons of Civil Courts Act, 1887:
The provincial Civil Courts Act,1887 was passed with a view to provide a complete and separate system of civil court for bengal, he North Western provinces and Assam. This Act was passed for the real improvement in the existing system. The passing of this Act subsequently proved to be satisfactory for giving a complete system of Civil Courts in these provinces. This Act also gives authority to the judicial officers to perform pure judicial functions different from the executive functions. Moreover judgeship is becoming more and more the unite of judicial administration. It is as well that they should be so, for such a condition is an incentive to a more careful supervision on the part of a judge over his subordinates and consequently to better works on the part of all below him and for this the Civil Courts Act, 1887, provides a complete guidance.

Scope of the Act:
The various chapters of this Act deals with the structure, constitution, jurisdiction, administration and the allocation of business of the Civil Courts in Bangladesh. Chapter II provides about the constitution of different civil courts and chapter III deals with the ordinary original, local and appellate jurisdiction of the Civil Courts. Chapter IV with special appellate jurisdiction of Civil Courts. In addition, this chapter provides about the Small Cause Courts local and pecuniary jurisdiction.

Which works of a man/woman will be treated as major sin or kabira gunah?

The FOLLOWINGS ARE the kabira gunah or major sin.
1. Associating partners with Allaah (Shirk)
Great Shirk: worshipping beings other than Allaah (proof all over Qur'an)
Small Shirk: Riya
The Prophet (saw), "Should I not inform you of that which I fear for you even more than the dangers of dajjaal? It is the hidden shirk: A person stands to pray and he beautifies his prayer because he sees the people looking at him". (Sahih; Sunan ibn Majah)
2. Committing murder: (Furqan; 68)
3. Performing Sorcery (2: 102)
4. Not performing the Prayers (Maryam: 59)
5. With holding the Zakah (Charity) (3: 180)
6. Breaking the fast of Ramadhan or not fasting in that month without a valid excuse.
Prophet (saw) said, "Islaam is built upon five pillars: testifying that there is no true god except Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the Zakah, making the pilgrimage to the house, and fasting the month of Ramadhan" (Sahih al-Jami # 2837)
7. Not performing the pilgrimage when one has the ability to do so (above hadith)
8. Disobeying one's parents (al-Isra: 23)
9. Cutting off the ties of relationships (Muhammad: 22)
10. Committing adultery or fornication (al-Isra: 30)
The Prophet (saw) said, "Allaah will not look at a person (with pleasure) who commits sodomy with a man or a woman" (Sahih al-Jami # 7678)
13. Devouring the wealth of orphans (4:10)
14. Forging statements concerning Allaah or forging Hadith (al-Zumar: 60)
15. Fleeing from the battle (al-Anfal: 16)
16. Wrongdoing, deception or oppression on the part of the ruler (al-Shura: 42)
17. Being arrogant, boastful, vain (al-Nahl: 23)
18. Giving false testimony (al-Furqan: 72)
19. Drinking alcoholic beverages (5: 90)
20. Gambling (5: 90)
21. Slandering innocent women (al-Nur: 23)
22. Misappropriating something from the booty (3:161)
23. Stealing (5:38)
24. Committing highway robbery (5: 33)
25. Making false oath
Prophet (saw) said, "If someone is ordered to take an oath and he takes a false oath in order to take possession of property of a Muslim, then he will incur Allah's wreath when he meets Him" (Sahih al-Jami # 6083)
26. Committing oppression (al-Shuara: 277)
27. Levying illegal taxes
Prophet (saw) said, "Do you know who the bankrupt is? The bankrupt form my nation is the one who appears on the Day of Resurrection having performed the prayers, fasted and paid the zakah, but had also abused that person, slandered that person, wrongfully taken the wealth of that person and spilled the blood of that person. These people will take from his good deeds. If his good deeds are thereby exhausted, he will be given their sins and then he will be thrown into the hell-fire" (Sahih al-Jami #87)
28. Consuming forbidden wealth or taking it by any means (2: 188)
29. Committing suicide (4: 29)
30. Being a perpetual liar (3: 61)
32. Engaging in bribery (2: 188)
33. Women appearing like men and vice-versa
Prophet (saw) said, "Allah's curse is upon women who appear like men and upon men who appear like women" (Sahih al-Jami # 4976)
34. Being a dayyouth
Dayyouth: is the one who approves the indecency of his womenfolk and who is void of jealousy or the pimp who facilitates indecency between two people
Prophet (saw) said, "Allah has forbidden the Paradise to three people: the alcoholic, the runaway slave, and the one who is complacent in the face of the evil deeds that his family is performing" (Sahih al-Jami # 3047)
35. Marrying for the purpose of making a woman allowable for another (Baqarah)
36. Not keeping clean from the remains of urine
Ibn Abbas reported that Prophet (saw) passed by a grave and said, "These two are being punished and they are not being punished for something hard. But it is a great sin. One of them did not keep himself clean form his urine and the other went around spreading tales" (Sahih al-Jami # 2436)
37. Acting for show (al-Maoon: 4-6)
38. Acquiring knowledge only for worldly gain or concealing knowledge (2: 160)
39. Breaching trusts (al-Anfal: 27)
40. Reminding people of one's kindness (2: 27)
41. Denying predestination (al-Qamar: 49)
"If Allah were to punish the inhabitants of the heavens and earths, then He would punish and He would not be doing injustice to them. If He were to have mercy on them, His mercy would be greater than from their actions. If a person had amount of gold equivalent to Mount Uhud or similar to Mount Uhud and spent it in the Path of Allah, (that spending) would not be accepted form him by Allah until he believes in the preordainment of good and evil. And until he knows that what afflicted him was not going to miss him and what missed him was not going to afflict him. If you were to die with any belief other than that, you would enter the Hellfire" (Kitab al-Sunnah by Ibn Abu Asi # 245. Albani says that its chain is sahih)
42. Eavesdropping on other's private conversation (Hujarat: 12)
43. Spreading harmful tales (al-Qamar: 10)
44. Cursing others
Prophet (saw) said, "Abusing a Muslim is evil and fighting him is disbelief" (Sahih al-Jami # 3598)
45. Not fulfilling one's promises
Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever has a four characteristic is a complete hypocrite. Whoever posses any of these characteristics has the characteristics of hypocrisy until he gives it up; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it up…" (Bukhari)
Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever goes to fortuneteller and asks him about something will not have his prayer accepted for forty nights" (Sahih al-Jami # 5816)
47. A wife being rebellious to her husband (4: 34)
48. Putting pictures of beings with souls on clothing, curtains, rocks and any other items
Prophet (saw) said, "…the people who will receive the greatest punishment on the day of judgment are those who compete with Allah in creation [those who make pictures or statues]" (sahih al-Jami # 1691)
49. Striking one's self, wailing, tearing one's clothing, pulling one's hair & similar deeds as a form of mourning
Prophet (saw) said, "One who strikes his cheeks or tears his clothing and shouts in the manner of pre-Islamic culture is not one of us" (Sahih al-Jami # 5713)
50. Committing injustice (al-Shura: 42)
51. Being overbearing or taking advantage of the weak, slaves, wives or animals
Prophet (saw) said, "Allah will torture those who torture people in this world" (Muslim)
52. Harming neighbors
Prophet (saw) said, "A person whose neighbor is not safe from his mischief will not enter paradise" (sahih al-Jami # 7002)
53. Harming and abusing Muslims (al-Ahzab: 58)
54. Wearing one's clothes too long, i.e. below the ankles
Prophet (saw) said, "What is below the ankles will be in the hellfire " (Bukhari)
55. Harming the slaves of Allah
Prophet (saw) said that Allah said, "Whoever shows enmity to a slave of Mine (Allah's) I shall be at war with him" (Sahih al-Jami # 1778)
56. Men wearing silk & gold
Prophet (saw) said, "Gold and silk have been permitted for the females of my nation and forbidden for its males" (Sahih al-Jami # 209)
Prophet (saw) said, "Men who wears silk in this world will have no portion [of heavens] in the hereafter" (Muslim)
57. Running away of a slave
58. Sacrificing animals for other than Allah
Prophet (Saw) said, "The one who sacrifices for other than Allah is cursed by Allah" (Sahih al-Jami # 4988)
59. Claiming that somebody is one's father while the claimant knows it is not true
Prophet (saw) said, "One who claims that someone is his father and knows that it is not true will be forbidden of paradise" (Sahih al-Jami # 5865)
60. Arguing or quarreling for show & not seeking the truth
Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever argues in support of something that is wrong and he knows it Allah will be angry with him until he stops" (Sahih al-Jami # 6073)
61. Not allowing excess water to flow to others
Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever doesn't allow the access water or pasture for others will not share in the blessings of Allah on the day of judgment" (Sahih al-Jami # 6436)
62. Not measuring the weights properly (al-Mutafafifeen: 1-3)
63. Thinking that one is safe from Allah's planning (al-Araf: 99)
64. Eating carrion, blood or pork meat (al-Anam: 145)
65. Not praying in the congregation & praying by one's self without a valid excuse
Prophet (saw) said, "Whoever hears the call to prayer and doesn't come to prayer, there is no prayer for him say for the one who has valid excuse" (Sahih al-Jami # 6176)
66. Continually not performing the Friday prayers and congregational prayers without any valid excuse
Prophet (saw) said, "If people don't stop abandoning the Friday Prayers Allah may seal their hearts and they will become headless" (Muslim)
67. Harming others by manipulation one's bequests (4: 12)
68. Being deceitful or deceptive (Fatir: 43)
69. Spying on the Muslims & pointing out their secrets (al-Kalam: 11)
70. Abusing or reviling anyone of the Companions of the Prophet (saw)
Prophet (saw) said, "Do not revile my companions for, by the one in whose hands is my soul, if you were to spend in charity a mountain of gold similar to mount Uhud it would not be equal to a handful or a half a handful (or what they have done)" (Sahih al-Jami # 7187)
Please make sincere repentance to Allah before as Ali (ra) said, "Today is deed without reckoning and tomorrow is reckoning without deeds". Sincere repentance has four conditions:
Feeling bad for the sin, Firm commitment in intention not to repeat sin (whether it happens again is not a condition if one tried his best), Make repentance to Allah by Du'a and asking or better crying for forgiveness. If some person has been wronged because of this sin then one needs to make up to this person.